The Church of St. Stephen, also called Complex of the Seven Churches. Connected with the most ancient records of history and religion of Bologna, is a monumental complex of buildings, noted since the year 887 as the “Holy Jerusalem”. A legendary account of the late twelfth century said it was founded by the bishop Petronio in Bologna (431/32-450), which dedicated the place to the Christian Martyr, Stephen, reproducing the places of the Passion of Christ, viewed in a trip to the Holy Land. According to archaeological excavations at the end of the fourth century, the area adjacent to the Via Aemilia (Major Road) and the then eastern suburb, used to be a Christian cemetery, where bodies of local Protomartyrs likely were buried, such as Vitale and Agricola, found in 392/93, and St. Ambrose of Milan, in the Jewish cemetery. The site also preserves the memory of the Lombards, who conquered Bologna in 727, and Charlemagne, who in 786 fetch some relics of the martyrs. After a decline between IX and X century about half of the complex was reconstituted by the arrival of Benedictine monks – their presence is documented for the first time in the year 983 – whose intense building activity concentrated between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries and gave to the center the Romanesque style that still retains, in spite of modern restoration. The complex structure is enriched by a further development, largely disappeared.